First aid primary assessment
First aid primary assessment is essential and our first aid training is comprehensive, we want you to learn to the best of your ability, Each and every First aid lesson is designed in an easy to understand format.
The level of consciousness of every single casualty will be one of the following.
A – Patient is alert
V – Responds only to voice
P – Responds only to pain
U – Unresponsive
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a reliable and universally comparable way of rating the severity of a coma or level of consciousness and assesses the patient’s ability to do simple tasks like open their eyes, move and speak.
There are three types of responses that are measured, and then added together to give a total overall score. Lower scores mean the lower the patient’s conscious state.
The Glasgow Coma Scale is used in helping to predict the progression of a patient’s condition.
The three responses measured are:
- Best motor response – has a maximum score of 6
- Best verbal response – has a maximum score of 5
- Eye opening – has a maximum score of 4
1 is the he lowest score for each category so the lowest possible score is 3 (adding each score together) (no response to pain + no verbalisation + no eye opening).
If the patient has a GCS of 8 or less, this indicates severe injury, a GCS of 9-12 indicates moderate injury, and a GCS score of 13-15 is obtained when the injury is relatively minor.
Grades of Best Motor Response
6 – Carrying out request (‘obeying command’) – the patient executes simple tasks that you ask.
5 Localising response to pain.
4 Withdrawal to pain – pulls limb away from painful stimulus.
3 Flexor response to pain – pressure on nail bed causes abnormal flexion of limbs – decorticate posturing
2 Extensor posturing to pain – stimulus causes limb extension – decerebrate posturing.
1 No response to pain.
Grades of Best Verbal Response
5 Oriented – patient knows who they are and where they are, even why, and the actual year, season and month.
4 Confused conversation – patient responds in conversational manner, with some disorientation and confusion.
3 Inappropriate speech – random or exclamatory speech, with no conversational exchange.
2 Incomprehensible speech – no words uttered, only moaning.
1 No verbal response.
4 Spontaneous eye opening.
3 Eye opening in response to speech – that is, any speech or shout.
2 Eye opening in response to pain.
1 No eye opening.